How Sane Are We ? Four Levels And Question Answers | Anuradha Chaudhary | Mero Solution

How Sane Are We ? Four Levels And Question Answers 

How Sane Are We ? Four Levels And Question Answers

 Four Levels of How Sane Are We ?                                       -Anuradha Chaudhary 

1.LITERAL COMPREHENSION :                       

In the essay, ‘How Sane Are We?’Anuradha Chaudhary, a professor of Environmental Biology raises the issue of environmental degradation. She states that environmental condition is related to social, political and economic system of the world. More specifically, western political leaders are responsible for the worsening condition of the environment at alarming rate.

Humankind’s fundamental irresponsibility towards nature can be seen in the production of CFCs. The fact shows that 20% of the green house effect, climatic disaster, the extinction of life on earth and ozone layer depletion are the impacts of CFCs. CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), manmade non-toxic; odorless substances were invented in 1930 and were originally used in refrigerators, air conditioners, spray cans and computer chips. In 1974, scientists warned that this chemical was responsible for destroying ozone layer, a natural shield around the atmosphere of the earth which absorbs 99% of the sun’s ultra –violet rays making the life possible on earth. Depletion of ozone layer causes significant damage to human immune system, natural ecosystem, agriculture and raises the incidence of skin cancer and eye cataracts. Only in 1978, USA, Canada, Norway and Sweden banned the use of CFCs only in spray cans. In 1985, Ozone layer depletion above Antarctica was reported. Only then in 1990, the world’s nations signed an agreement promising to stop the production of CFCs by the year2000. But the agreement was not seriously followed. By 1992, the global shield had lost 5% of its ozone. By then, the nations agreed to advance the phase out date i.e. 1996 for rich countries and 2006 for poor countries and if things go on as agreement, the ozone layer is expected to recover fully by 2066.

While some people took this agreement as a remarkable victory for human rationality, environmentalists like Asimov and Pohl take it as a proof of collective misconduct. They question the soundness of letting CFCs affect the environment for such a long duration. They wonder what the nations did for 22 years. It is the foolishness of western politicians to be worried about the elections only and not to take immediate action. They could constantly stop the production of CFCs and use other readily available, cheaper and harmless chemicals to substitute CFCs. The essayist predicts that in coming 50 years, 240 million people might contract skin cancer as a result of ozone layer depletion and out of which four million might die. 80 million might develop eye cataracts, of which many may become blind. Other effects such as suppression of the immune system, threats to the Antarctic food chain, damage to ecosystem and agriculture and extinction of some wild species will be intense. Some of these effects are already being felt, especially in southern countries like Australia and Chile. But we are not serious about the health of the biosphere. Like Karel Capek’s Newts, we are reproducing at alarming rate and adding stock of Frankenstein’s monster (nuclear bombs, poisons) which are self- destructive. Doing so, we are digging graves for ourselves and our descendents.

This suggestive essay might be trying to focus on the burning issue of our time. All human beings are not sane at all as it is asked in the title of this essay. Like Rudyard Kipling's quotation, we have slain our children. We are unable to save our golden inheritance but we are going to meet our doom due to our irrational and careless activities. People expect good things from their political leaders who should make right decisions in public favour. Because of wrong decisions of leaders, policy markers and the government bodies; the whole earth is at the mouth of calamity. We are just digging our graves and waiting for the death. We are impractical, irrational and insane human beings. This hot and challenging issue is highlighted by the author in this essay.

The essayist has highlighted the global problem for which all humans are responsible. Political leaders and manufacturers are major causes for destruction. The scientists who have invented the harmful chemicals are also the vital cause of problem in biosphere. How can they be free from the global problem? Mostly, the developed countries, their industrialization and so-called economic policies are the major portion of cause for the present state of biosphere. Still, everything has not been finished completely yet. Can't we do something good for its protection from today? Isn't it possible if we all selflessly do effort to protect it?

Before reading this essay, I was unknown about the ecological problem. As I read it, I came to know that ozone layer has slowly been depleted due to our careless activities. I didn't have idea that my careless activities may create serious problem in the environment. It also opened my eyes to realize the present scenario of Nepal. Our political leaders, policy makers and government bodies are not responsible and careful about how this country be developed further. The condition of biosphere in this essay and Nepalese political and ecological situations are matched in my perspective. I also realized to save the environment and fulfill my responsibility as a good citizen.
Question Answers of How Sane Are We ?

Q.1. What central idea is presented by Anuradha Chaudhary in her essay "How Sane Are We? Itemize the seven most significant bits of information.

ANSWER : The title of this essay itself is a question: How Sane Are We? For that, Anuradha Chaudhary has given both positive and negative answers. It is an expression of hopeless situation due to environmental problems. It is negative attitude of human that has brought serious problem in the environment. Humans are knowingly damaging it. Being irresponsible to nature, ozone layer is damaged polluted environment so that the ultraviolet radiation causes various diseases and dangers. CFCs (Chlorine, Fluorine and Carbons) affects badly to the environment. Although in 1990 the world's famous nations did sign on agreement to stop the production of CFCs by 2006, the condition is more serious by now.

The essayist claims that how humans can call themselves sane since they are careless in natural destruction and production and misuse of CFCs. If fundamental changes are not brought in the thinking and the activities of people in time, it is sure to have very dark and uncertain future. Again, Anuradha Chaudhary has given her positive argument and rational aspects of human attitude. She is not hopeless yet. It is the positive step taken by USA, Canada, Norway, etc. in controlling the production of CFCs. So, some awareness must be adopted for the protection of natural balance and beauty.

Seven most significant bits of information mentioned in this essay are given below:
1. Most people are irresponsible towards the decay of the environment whereas politicians are more responsible for such situation.
2. Scientists have discovered ozone layer that protects us from ultraviolet rays of the sun.
3. Scientists are warning to people about the damage of ozone layer due to harmful gases produced and used that will destroy the human race ultimately.
4. The eco-system of nature is destroyed by the damage of ozone layer.
5. CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) are used less productively as well as in more destruction of ozone layer.
6. People basically, government, political leaders, policy formulators are more focused on immediate benefits being careless to the existence of living creatures in the world and long-term future effects.
7. To save ourselves and our environment we should stop in producing CFCs and become much careful to environmental protection and balance otherwise we are digging our own grave and will surely be drowned.

By such suggestions, the essayist is trying to make aware the public about how to protect environment and ourselves in this essay "How Sane Are We?"

Q.2 . Did Chaudary answer her own question "How sane are we?" Which facts and examples, in her view, support her answer?

ANSWER : This essay "How Sane Are We?" is talking about ecological and global problem of environment of this planet. The essayist has selected interrogative title "How sane Are We?" which requires some answer. Obviously, the writer is able to give answer of her question.
Human beings are totally careless about their harmful actions. Selfish politicians and political leaders have made the situation more serious. The writer has given negative answer of this question. Actually, humans are totally careless, indifferent and irrational. The activities they have done in the environment that ultimately destroy ozone layer, makes our home planet problematic and finishes our real happiness. We are not sane at all. Our rationality has not worked properly. People have become selfish, and opportunists. They hardly think about long-term impacts of their actions. With enough justification the essayist has concluded that we are not wise at all or sane at all regarding bio-sphere, earth planet and over all living condition. Humans are just thinking about how to get benefits, how to get temporary advantages not the long lasting side effects of their illogical actions. Thus, humans are not sane at all regarding the environmental problem.

Q.3. Would Lohani accept Chaudhary's conclusion that "If we fail to bring about fundamental changes in our ways of thinking and doing politics, we just might sink and drown"?

ANSWER : Yes, I think so. Lohani would accept Chaudhary's conclusion that "If we fail to bring about fundamental changes in our ways of thinking and doing politics, we just might sink and drown."

Lohani has discussed about would be revenge of Earth Goddess against human careless activities on the earth. There is forecast of upcoming challenge discussed in this poem. Similarly, Anuradha Chaudhary also talks about the ecological problem, environmental degradation and the challenges we face in our existence. It is almost sure and certain that, if we don't bring fundamental changes in our thinking and doing politics and consider much while making serious decision, our doom is sure and certain. Thus, this challenge of environment would be supported by Shreedhar Lohani.

Q.4. Summarize the essay "How Sane Are We?" in a single sentence.

ANSWER : Human beings have produced CFCs gas and have done ample of destructive activities on the biosphere but no one accepts that their coming generation are going to meet dark future if same thing is going on and don't do in accordance to international agreement they have signed.

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